INFORMATION FOR ALL AUTHORS



UNDERSTANDING

COPY EDITING AND PROOFREADING



IN ORDER TO GET



SCIENTIFIC MANUSCRIPTS & ACADEMIC ARTICLES



PUBLISHED IN JOURNALS & MAGAZINES



Is there a difference?


What is Copy Editing?    What is Proofreading?



Copy Editing Explained



Proofreading Explained





PRS helps all Authors to get their

Manuscripts & Articles Published



Scientific Manuscripts having been English Edited

Get Your Manuscript Published


An Introduction to the Correction of a Scientific or Academic Paper



There are Three Separate Stages of Correction in any given Document or Manuscript



Review


While reviewing, the evaluator only marks the errors or the mistakes.   The evaluator does not actually correct them.   It is a quality control measure in order to ascertain the quality of the work.  

Often, if the manuscript's text is large, the review may only be conducted on a small sample of the text, especially if the author/client is well know to the proofreading company.
  
In the case of PRS Proofreading Services, this work would be conducted by the PRS Evaluation Team,
in order to produce a Formal Quotation.


Copy Editing

Contrary to popular belief, a copy editor is not a glorified spell checker.

   The copy editor is your necessary partner in a publication.

   A copy editor checks for and corrects errors in grammar, spelling, syntax, and punctuation.

   People often refer to all of the stages of revision as “editing”, but "copy editing" is what is performed after the reviewing process is completed.   It is the next stage in the process of producing the finished finalised paper.

  Careful copy editing takes time - and it is an in-depth process.   It is critical for a polished, well written paper.

It cannot be rushed and hurried, regardless of what some companies on the Internet claim.

   PRS Proofreading Services employs 2 different copy editors at this stage.

The first copy editor takes care of "The 1st Draft", which the author/client always receives.

The second copy editor takes care of "The 2nd Draft", which is not usually sent to the author/client,
unless it is deemed to be critically important.

   This 2nd stage corrects any errors that may have been missed previously.

   This '2nd copy editing' is very pertinent, since in a manuscript with many errors, it is often very difficult
to spot all of the mistakes, as it is very confusing on the eye and the brain.


Proofreading

Proofreading comes next and this is the last stage.

   It consists of a final sweep through the paper, with an eye looking out for any more errors.

Proofreaders do not suggest major changes to the text, rather, they look for minor text and formatting errors.

Proofreading is the process of examining the final draft of a document or text, after it has been copy edited.
This is in order to ensure that there are absolutely no errors.

A proofreader will review for spelling errors, punctuation errors, typos, or for the incorrect use of English
(in other words, ensuring that the paper has American English or British English, as required).

   The proofreader will then confirm that the material is ready for publication.

   Copy editing and proofreading are separate tasks, although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably by people who do not know the difference.

   On highly technical and scientific papers, PRS will again employ 2 proofreaders at this end stage,
in order to be completely satisfied that all of the revisions are perfectly correct.



In this PRS Proofreading Article today,

we are going to take a look at these 2 words


 Copy Editing and Proofreading

  
Is there a difference?    Do these two words mean the same thing?


    These are two questions that PRS hears almost every day


   So below are some brief explanations

of what these two words actually mean,


together with a Copy Editing & Proofreading Example

upon some Original Text


What is the difference between copy editing and proofreading?



UNDERSTANDING

COPY EDITING & PROOFREADING


What do these words really mean?

Do they have the same meaning?



No - Absolutely not - They are both different procedures


Copy Editing takes place first of all


Proofreading happens in the final stages of the revision



WHAT IS COPY EDITING?

Copy Editing a Manuscript


Copy Editing
(also written as copy-editing or copyediting) is the work that an editor does in order to

improve the formatting, the style, and the accuracy of the text.

 
Unlike general editing, copy editing does not involve changing the substance of the text.

   It adheres to the original intended meaning.


Copy refers to written text or typewritten text, intended for typesetting, printing, or for publication.

Copy Editing is always done before Proofreading, which is the last step in the editorial cycle.

"The 5 C’s" summarise the copy editor's job: -

Make the copy clear, correct, concise, comprehensible, and consistent.

   Copy Editors should “Make it say what it means, and mean what it says”.

Typically, Copy Editing involves correcting spelling, grammar, punctuation, terminology and jargon,

timelines and semantics (meanings); always ensuring that the script adheres

to the author's or the publisher's meaningful style.

Often, Copy Editors are also responsible for adding any "display copy",

such as headlines, standardised headers and footers,

together with photo and logo captions.

With PRS Proofreading Services, the bulk of Copy Editing

involves the correction of Scientific Manuscripts, or Academic Articles, or Thesis.



WHAT IS PROOFREADING?

Proofreading a Manuscript


Proofreading (also written as proof-reading or proof reading)

means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors, whatever they might be.



A proof copy is a manuscript that has been typeset after the copy editing.


Proof typescripts often contain typographical errors that are introduced by

mistyping (hence the word typo to refer to misplaced, missing or incorrect characters).

Proofreading consists of reviewing any text,

either a hard copy on paper, or an electronic copy on a computer,

and checking for typos and formatting and grammar errors and clear meanings and understandings.


Here is an Example of the Original Text (a)


The Copy Edited Version (b)


The Final Proofread Version (c)


And The Text - Ready for the Journal (d)



COPY EDITING & PROOFREADING EXAMPLE




ORIGINAL TEXT (a)


       Ahmed, et al. (2018) performed molecular dynamics to investigate the interaction between glyphosate and mineral surface surfaces. At our best knowledge this is the first molecular dynamic simulations to explore the binding mechanisms of glyphosate with goethite surfaces in the presence of water.


COPY EDITED TEXT (b)


Copy Edited Text Example


PROOFREAD TEXT (c & d)


    Ahmed et al. (2018) performed molecular dynamics, in order to investigate the interactions between glyphosate and mineral surfaces. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, these were the first molecular dynamic simulations for exploring the binding mechanisms of glyphosate
with goethite surfaces in the presence of water.


SOME TIMES - THIS IS VERY CONFUSING


IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS ABOUT COPY EDITING AND/OR PROOFREADING

PLEASE

CONTACT US FOR FURTHER INFORMATION

AND WE WILL BE VERY HAPPY TO HELP YOU



COME BACK TO THIS PAGE SOON - THERE WILL BE MORE INFORMATION


ABOUT COPY EDITING & PROOFREADING


AND GETTING YOUR MANUSCRIPT READY FOR PUBLICATION


USEFUL LINKS FOR AUTHORS

SPRINGER JOURNALS         ELSEVIER JOURNALS         UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO JOURNALS         PROOFREADING     


TRANSLATIONS


If you need any help with the English on this website

or if you want to translate any other kind of text into a different language

(2652 language combinations including English)


then please use the Translation Box - it's free!

TRANSLATION BOX


PRS PROOFREADING SERVICES

Helping You To Write Perfect English

The Complete Service for Proofreading, Copy Editing and Correcting English Writing

    World News      World Time      English Language Level Test      Understanding Copy Editing & Proofreading      Use New PRS Website

    American English Spellings vs. British English Spellings          Newsletter       Top 20 Grammar Mistakes By Authors Needing A Rewrite

Privacy Policy            Terms & Conditions            Site Map            Customer Services            Disclaimer             Careers             Links

Copyright © PRS Proofreading Services 1996 - 2019
All Rights Reserved